African American research chemist Percy Julian was a pioneer in the chemical synthesis of medicinal drugs such as cortisone and steroids. He is one of the first African Americans to receive a Ph.D in chemistry. Julian led research that resulted in the mass production of hormones which led to widely available birth control. He was also a active fundraiser for the NAACP.
The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 - 30 January 1948) and Wilbur ( April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903. From 1905 to 1907, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft
Simone de Beauvoir (9 January 1908 - 14 April 1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist and social theorist. While she did not consider herself a philosopher, Beauvoir had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory. Beauvoir wrote novels, essays, biographies, an autobiography, monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues
An improved refrigerator design was patented by African American inventor John Standard of Newark, New Jersey on June 14 1891 (U.S. patent #455,891). John Standard was also received U.S. patent #413,689 on October 29 1889 for an improved oil stove
"COLORED MEN - The Frst Americans Who Planted our Flag on the Firing Line!" WWI poster of African-American soldiers in bayonet combat with German soldiers, as Lincoln says, "Liberty and freedom shall not perish!" 350,000 served in segregated units, and several units saw action with the French, and 171 won the Legion of Honor. By the end of 1917, over 600 men became captains and lieutenants.